Gunnar 7


  • April 1965-May 1966. Field assistant to professor Fredrik Barth in FAO’s (Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations) Jebel Marra Project in West Darfur. Focus of studies on the Fur,  Baggara Arabs, and Fulani tribes.
  • March-November 1969. Grant from The Norwegian Research Council for work in North and West Darfur with focus on the Fur, Zaghawa, and Arab Baggara tribes.
  • January 1972-May 1973. Associate Professor at the University of Khartoum with local working contract. In May 1972, fieldwork in North Darfur with focus on iron smelting under grant from the University of Khartoum.
  • June-December 1973. Consultant in the ‘Southern Darfur Landuse Planning Survey’ hired by the Ministry of Local Government. Focus on the Baggara and the Fulani tribes.
  • January-March 1975. Consultant for the ILO (International Labour Organization) Comprehensive Employment Strategy Mission to the Sudan. Fieldwork in West Darfur with focus on the Fur tribe.
  • April-May 1975. Consultant for FAO’s Savanna Project, in South Darfur with focus on the Baggara.



1967: ‘ Methodological Considerations’ in Barth, F.: Human Resources. Report submitted to FAO. Published as Occasional Paper No 1 Dept. of Social Anthropology, University of Bergen.

1969: ‘Economic Determinants in Ethnic Processes’. In Barth, F. (ed.): Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Norwegian University Press. Oslo.

1971: ‘Familieliv i et afrikansk stammesamfunn’ (Family Life in an African Tribal Community). In Barth, F. (ed.) : Mennesket som samfunnsborger. Universitetsforlaget. Oslo.

1972: ‘ Nomadization as an Economic Career among Sedentaries in the Sudan Savanna Belt’. In Cunnison, I. and James, W. (eds.): Essays in Sudan Ethnography. C Hurst & Company. London.

1974 with Georg Henriksen: Teknikk og sult i Afrika (Technology and Starvation in Africa). Dagbladet 26/8-1974. Essay in Norwegian newspaper.

1975: ‘ Some Economic and Ecological Implications of Traditional Systems of Livestock Management’.  Antropologiska Studier, No 15. Stockholm.

1977: ‘ Pastoral Systems of Production’. In O’Keefe, P. and B. Wisner (eds.): Landuse and Development. International African Institute. London.

1978: ‘Ethnic Groups and Language Use in Darfur’. In Thelwell, R. (ed.): Aspects of Language in the Sudan. Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning, No 5. The New University of Ulster.

1979 with McCown, R.L. and C. de Haan: ‘Interaction between Cultivation and Livestock Production in Semi-Arid Africa’. In Hall, A., G.H. Cannell, and H.W. Lawton (eds.): Agriculture in Semi-arid Environments. Ecological Studies, No 34. Springer Verlag. Berlin.

1980 (ed.): Problems of Savannah Development: The Sudan Case. Occasional Papers, No. 19. Department of Social Anthropology. University of Bergen.

1984: ‘The Jellaba Trading System of Eastern Equatoria’. In Manger, L. (ed.): Trade and Traders in the Sudan. Occasional Papers in Social Anthropology, No. 32. University of Bergen.

1984: ‘Fur’. In Weekes, R.V. (ed.): Muslim Peoples. Greenwood Press. Westport.

1990: ‘Fattigdom, bistand og bærekraftig utvikling’ (Poverty, Aid and Sustainable Development). Proceedings from the Association of Development Researchers in Denmark.

1990: ‘Aid and Sustainable Development in a Dual Economy’. Forum for Utviklingsstudier, No. 1 Oslo.

1990: Øl og morsmelk’ (Beer and Mother’s Milk). Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift, No 1. Oslo.

1991: ‘Systems of Agricultural Production in Western Sudan’. In Craig, G.M. (ed.): The Agriculture of the Sudan. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

1991: ‘Pastorale samfunn og utnyttelsen av fellesressurser’ (Pastoral Communities and Exploitation of Common Resources). In Stenseth N.C., N. Tranden and G. Kristiansen (eds.): Forvaltningen av våre fellessressurser. Ad Notam forlag. Oslo.

1991: ‘Cultural Content and Ethnic Identity’. In Grønhaug, R., G. Haaland and G. Henriksen: The Ecology of Choice and Symbol. Alma Mater. Bergen.

1996 with Randi Haaland: ‘Levels of Meaning in Symbolic Objects’. Cambridge Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 6, No 2. Cambridge.

1998: ‘ Beer, Blood and Mother’s Milk. Sudan Notes and Records, New Series, Vol. 2: 53-76.

2002 with Randi Haaland and Suman Rijal: The Social Life of Iron. Anthropos Vol. 97: 35-54.

2006: ‘The Darfur Conflict in Evolving Politico-Economic and Socio-Cultural Contexts’. The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities, and Nations. Vol. 5.

2009: ‘Pastoral People in a Globalizing World’. In Hafsaas-Tsakos, H. and A. Tsakos (eds.): Connecting South and North. BRIC. Bergen.

2012: ‘Event Focused Fieldwork and Comparative Methodology. Exploring Ethnic Boundaries and Cultural Variation’. Naidoo L. (ed.): An Ethnography of Global Landscapes and Corridors. INTECH. Rijeka.

2012: ‘Samfunn: En prosessforståelse. Dahlgren K. and H.E. Næss (eds.): Tanker om samfunn. Universitetsforlaget. Oslo.


1973: ‘Socio-Cultural Infrastructure in Southern Darfur’. Report submitted to Hunting Technical Services (HTS): Southern Darfur Landuse Planning Survey.

1974: ‘Noen variabler i organiseringen av økonomisk virksomhet på landsbygda i Sudan’ (Some variables in the organization of economic activities in rural areas in Sudan). Report to SIDA.

1975: ‘Animal Husbandry: Migratory and Sedentary’. Technical Paper No 1. in Growth, Employment and Equity: A Comprehensive Strategy for the Sudan. ILO. Geneva.

1975: ‘Agricultural Strategy for Western Sudan’. Technical Paper No 4 in Growth, Employment and Equity: A Comprehensive Strategy for the Sudan. ILO. Geneva.

1986: ‘Target Groups’, ‘The Livestock Sector’, ‘Marginalization of Small Scale Cultivators’. in IFAD: Special Programming Mission to the Sudan. Rome.


2007 with Randi Haaland: God of War, Worldly Ruler, and Craft Specialists in the Meroitic Kingdom of Sudan: Inferring Social Identity from Material Remains. Journal of Social Archaeology. Vol. 4: 372-393.

2008 with Randi Haaland: Craft Specialization, Caste Identities and Political Centralization: On the Use of Anthropological Perspectives in Reconstructing Archaic Forms of Economic Organization. Chilidis K., J. Lund and C. Prescott (eds.): Facets of archeology. Essays in honour of Lotte Hedeager on her 60th birthday, Unipub. Oslo.

In Press with Randi Haaland: Early Farming Societies Along the Nile. Mitchell P. and P. Lane (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology. Oxford University Press.