Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Circumcision festivities with procession of women carrying objects related to food making as well as others related to male activities like hunting and warfare. This procession is called “ferangabia” which in Fur language means “the ...

Kvinne, Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0521

Gunnar Haaland

Gidad, Southern Darfur.

Although the Baggara Arabs are associated with migratory cattle husbandry, it is only the richest who have cattle herds large enough to yield a cash income required to satisfy their consumption needs for grain and ...

Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Bonde, Åker

Fotografi ubb-haa-0219

Gunnar Haaland

Lower Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

The camp site of a Fur farmer who has succeeded in accumulating cash for investment in a sufficient number of cattle. Cattle thrive best when they are moved seasonally between different ecological zones. Successful Fur ...

Telt, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0283

Randi Haaland

Village near Kutum in Northern Darfur.

Next to a stone-walled house of the Fur we can see four girbas. The girbas are water containers made of goat skin. However the girbas on the photo ...

Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0494

Gunnar Haaland

Southern Darfur.

At a camp of the Woodabe Fulani nomads during their migration into Fur area towards the end of the rainy season. The Fulani are found in the Sahel/Savannah zone from Senegal to the border of ...

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Okse

Fotografi ubb-haa-0048

Gunnar Haaland

Umu village, Jebel Marra, Western Darfur

Men drinking beer (Fur: “kira”) during a break in communal house building. Beer is a product that the wife makes for her husbands from millets taken from his granary. It is shameful to sell millet ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Øl

Fotografi ubb-haa-0525

Randi Haaland

Kutum, Northern Darfur.

The multi-ethnic market town of Kutum situated on the way to the blacksmith village of Toumra in Northern Darfur. Kutum is known for the many date palms (Fur: “senda”) seen in the wadi between the ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Palme, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0431

Randi Haaland

Kutum, Northern Darfur.

Women of the “mir” caste are selling pots at the local souq (market place). Ceramic goods are associated with the stigmatized “mir” identity and are transacted at a distance from the central market place where ...

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0355

Gunnar Haaland

Umu village, Jebel Marra, Western Darfur

Two women winnowing millet (Fur: “sona”, Arabic: “dukhn”). Note the terraces for rainy-season cultivation in the background. Terraces in the Jebel Marra region are mainly used as a technique of soil conservation, and they are ...

Kvinne, Landbruk, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Kornvarer, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0134

Gunnar Haaland

Wadi Aribo, Western Darfur.

A woman from the Jumala Arabs of Northern Darfur is setting up the tent in a dry season camp (Arabic: “fariq”), near Wadi Aribo, close to Zalingi.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0280

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Gurgei, Northern Darfur

An isolated village on Jebel Gurgei in the Jebel Si area of Northern Darfur, where people still lived in a very special type of house with flat-topped ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0437

Randi Haaland

Toumra village, Northern Darfur.

An elderly woman has prepared the body (Fur: “kiri”) of three pots (Fur: “ala”). On the picture she is preparing clay mixed with sorghum residue used as temper to make the neck (Fur: “kwei”) of ...

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0243

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

A group of nomadized Fur watering a donkey (Fur: “lel”) at their camp in the area of Jebel Si. Note the seasonal huts made of branches in the background. They are very different from the ...

Kvinne, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Fugler, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Esel

Fotografi ubb-haa-0348

Gunnar Haaland

Umu. Jebel Marra, Western Darfur.

Three Fur women are collecting flying ants from underground nests. The Fur of Jebel Marra eat flying ants fried in butterfat as well as raw

Kvinne, Barn, Sanking, Feltarbeid, Kvinner og barn, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Maur

Fotografi ubb-haa-0205

Gunnar Haaland

Western foothills of Jebel Marra.

A big beer-work party (Fur: “Bambani”)  arranged by a man to honour his mother in law (Fur: “iya mare”, Arabic: “naseeba”) by inviting a large group of ...

Kvinne, Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Øl

Fotografi ubb-haa-0227

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Communal festivities at circumcisions are very important among the Fur. In this photo, women are dancing “the gazelle dance” ( Fur: “ferangabie”) around the hut where the circumcision (Fur: “dogola kandi”, Arabic: “tahura”) will be ...

Kvinne, Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0329

Gunnar Haaland

Lower Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

A Baggara woman loading the family’s household utensils on an ox, preparing to move from the dry season grazing of Western Darfur area to the rainy season areas in Southern Darfur.

Kvinne, Barn, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Okse

Fotografi ubb-haa-0054

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Traditional sesame oil mill (Arabic: “assara”) carved out of a tree trunk. Note how the pounder in the middle of the mill is connected to the lever loaded with stones in the foreground. When the ...

Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Kamel, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Mølle, Kvern/mølle (bygdemølle), Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Bonde, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0028

Gunnar Haaland

Umu village of Jebel Marra, Western Darfur.

The landscape of Jebel Marra is dramatic. The steep mountain tops contrast with the hillsides of non-irrigated rainy season cultivation terraces.

Landskap, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0515

Gunnar Haaland

Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

A group of nomadized Fur resting under the shadow of a tree.

Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0543

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Western Darfur.

A group of Fur villagers are writing down Koran verses on the traditional writing boards (Arabic and Fur: “loh”) in connection with preparing healing water for a ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0274

Randi Haaland

Toumra, Northern Darfur.

An elderly woman accompanied by four girls and a boy outside her compound in the village of Toumra.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Jente, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0433

Gunnar Haaland

The mining area of Jebel Tayu, Northern Darfur.

A blacksmith (“mir”) is digging to locate a vein of iron rich ferricrete sandstone.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Gruvedrift, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Smed, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0116

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Western Darfur.

A Fur man is washing ink used to write Koranic verses off his writing board (Arabic and Fur: “loh”). The magic significance of the written Islamic text is exemplified in the belief that drinking this ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0277

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Tayu, Northern Darfur.

A blacksmith crushing ferricrete sandstone for iron smelting at the mining area of Jebel Tayu about one day’s camel ride west of Toumra.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Gruvedrift, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Smed, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0079

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Circumcision ceremonies include transvestitism by a male relative of the boy to be circumcised. In this photo, a man dressed as a woman is surrounded by people drumming and singing.

Kvinne, Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0520

Gunnar Haaland

Western foothills of Jebel Marra.

Entertainment by musicians, like this man blowing on a kudu horn at a big beer-work party (Fur : “Bambani”) is an important element expressing the “party” aspect of ...

Blåseinstrument, Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Musikk (instrumental og vokal)

Fotografi ubb-haa-0230

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Celebrations in connection with circumcision of boys (Fur: “dogola kandi”, Arabic: “tahura”). Note the cowrie shells (Fur: “kandura”, Arabic: “wadda”) used as ornament in the hair of the lady to the left of the man ...

Kvinne, Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0328

Gunnar Haaland

Western foothills of Jebel Marra, Western Darfur.

A Baggara family outside their tent.

Kvinne, Barn, Telt, Hest, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0070

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Western Darfur.

A man at his loom (Fur: “shaaka”). Spinning and weaving of cotton are considered male work. At marriage, a man should present his mother in law (Fur: “iya mare”, Arabic: “naseeba”) with a woven garment.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Veving, Industri og Håndverk, Spinning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0339

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Western Darfur.

The weekly market (Arabic: “souq”) is important in the Fur village economy. In this photo, a Fur woman is selling dried tomatoes (Fur: “futta”) and dried ochre (Fur: “faga kirro” – literally meaning “black ...

Kvinne, Handel, Mann, Feltarbeid, Marked, Kamel, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Grønnsaker, Landsby, Esel

Fotografi ubb-haa-0303

Randi Haaland

Gidad village, Southern Darfur.

A Fur woman of the “mir” caste is attaching a ring of wet clay to the body (Fur: “kiri”) of a pot.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0380

Gunnar Haaland

Zalingi market, Western Darfur.

On weekly market days, Fur farmers exchange agricultural products for the nomads’ milk products (e.g. sour milk and butter), and petty traders’ imported goods (e.g. sugar, tea, salt, cloth, shoes).

Kvinne, Barn, Handel, Mann, Feltarbeid, Marked, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0528

Gunnar Haaland

Umu village, Western Darfur.

Beer plays a very important role in the life of the Fur, not only nutritionally but also symbolically. It is a major item in rituals that serve to indoctrinate ideas of solidarity among community members. ...

Kvinne, Barn, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Krukke

Fotografi ubb-haa-0527

Gunnar Haaland

Toumra village, Northern Darfur.

The smelting of iron is carried out by men of the “mir” caste who are specialized in that craft (women of the “mir” caste are specialized in pottery making). In this photo a man is ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk, Kull

Fotografi ubb-haa-0080

Randi Haaland

Toumra, Northern Darfur.

Two men of the “mir” caste are strengthening the furnace structure by ropes made of tree fibers. Note the holes for inserting tuyeres (Fur: “borongot”) at the base of the furnace.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk, Ovn

Fotografi ubb-haa-0084

Gunnar Haaland

Tullus district, Southern Darfur.

Fulani herders of the Woodabe tribe lead a herd of longhorn cattle (called “kuri” in Sudan, not to be confused with the “kuri” cattle race of Lake Chad) on the migrations from Central African Republic ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Kveg

Fotografi ubb-haa-0062

Gunnar Haaland

Wadi Azum area, Western Darfur.

A Fur farmer with his throwing stick (Fur: “dolfa”, Arabic: “sofrog”) and his spears (Fur: “Kor”, Arabic: “harba”) in front of his sweet potato (Fur: “bambai”, Arabic: ...

Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Våpen

Fotografi ubb-haa-0169

Gunnar Haaland

Wadi Azum area, Western Darfur.

A woman outside her tent in the camp of nomadized Fur.

Kvinne, Telt, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Krukke

Fotografi ubb-haa-0542

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area.

A man and his daughter stand outside a flat-roofed Torrontonga house (Fur: “Tong)”. Note that in those days the Muslim Fur of Jebel Si did not practice a strict Islamic dress code for females.

Kvinne, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0451

Randi Haaland

Toumra village, Northern Darfur.

Preparing ferricrete sandstone for firing in the furnace located behind the blacksmith.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Smed, Industri og Håndverk, Ovn

Fotografi ubb-haa-0087

Randi Haaland

Toumra, Northern Darfur.

Men of the blacksmith/potter caste (Fur: “mir”) are making tuyeres of clay to be attached to the bellows (Fur: “swi”) used for blowing air into the furnace during smelting of iron (Fur: “daura”). While ordinary ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0113

Gunnar Haaland

Wadi Azum area, Western Darfur.

A Fur farmer watering his field of melons (Fur: “burto”). The water is lifted from a shallow well (Fur: “ro”) by a “shadouf” (a water lifting device) and brought in a calabash (Fur: “kere”) to ...

Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0222

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Western Darfur.

Two Fur men are writing on their wooden boards (Arabic and Fur: “loh”) holy verses from the Koran. When they have filled the board with writings the ink (Fur: “dawai”, Arabic: “hibr”) is washed off ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0275

Gunnar Haaland

Near Nyertete, Western foothills of Jebel Marra, Western Darfur.

A couple of the Weila Fulani is setting up their tent towards the end of the rainy season. The Fulani nomads generally move into the Fur area before the Baggara Arabs and they are also ...

Kvinne, Telt, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Krukke

Fotografi ubb-haa-0288

Gunnar Haaland

Western foothills of Jebel Marra.

Weeding millets. During “beer-work parties” (Fur: “tawisa”, Arabic: “nafir”), an individual cultivator (man or woman) mobilizes neighbours (men and women) for work by serving them beer (Fur: ...

Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0217

Gunnar Haaland

Western foothills of Jebel Marra

In the western foothills of Jebel Marra small perennial streams allow for a limited amount of dry season irrigated cultivation. A woman harvesting a field of onions (Fur: “basala”, Arabic: “bassal”) that has been irrigated ...

Kvinne, Landbruk, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0514

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Women using a traditional gin (Fur: “maal”) to separate the seeds from harvested cotton (Fur: “nyiri”).

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jente, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0334

Gunnar Haaland

Wadi Aribo, near Zalingi, Western Darfur..

A Fur woman is standing with her baby on the alluvial soils of wadi Aribo. Note the acacia albida trees  (Fur: “kurul”, Arabic: “haraz”) in the background. ...

Kvinne, Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Kvinner og barn, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0592

Randi Haaland

Sarar village, Southern Darfur.

Two women of the “mir” caste are bringing a couple of sundried pots to be placed in a shallow pit used as firing place.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0240

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Marra, Western Darfur.

The Deriba volcanic crater lake of the Jebel Marra mountain massive.

Landskap, Flyfoto, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Vulkan

Fotografi ubb-haa-0147

Gunnar Haaland

Kebe village, Western Darfur

Fur women making porridge (Fur “nung”, Arabic “asida”). Millet products like porridge and beer constitute the staple food among the Fur. They are products that belonged to the domestic sphere and should not be transacted ...

Mat, Kvinne, Kvinner i arbeid, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Matlaging

Fotografi ubb-haa-0138

Randi Haaland

Kutum, Northern Darfur.

Two blacksmiths of the “mir” caste forging an axe (Fur: “bou”, Arabic: “fas”) at the local souq (market place). Iron goods are associated with the stigmatized “mir” ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Smed, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0490

Gunnar Haaland

In a village of the western foothills of Jebel Marra, Western Darfur.

Selling agricultural crops provides cash income for local Fur farmers. Most selling takes place at the weekly souq (Arabic for “market”), but sometimes in the home of a cultivator. In this photo, a Fur is ...

Handel, Mann, Feltarbeid, Kamel, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0034

Randi Haaland

Sarar village, Southern Darfur.

A woman of the “mir” caste is adding graphite to the interior wall of one of the pots she is making. Note the broken pot in the background, which contains graphite, and the pot with ...

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0252

Gunnar Haaland

El Fashir, Northern Darfur.

One of the sons of the last sultan of Darfur, Ali Dinar (killed in 1916 west of Zalingi while fleeing from the British invasion force).

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Våpen

Fotografi ubb-haa-0594

Gunnar Haaland

Wadi Azum area, Western Darfur.

A Baggara Arab woman riding an ox on the group’s movement from the dry-season Fur area to the Baggara rainy season areas further south in Id el Ghannam.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Okse

Fotografi ubb-haa-0047

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Beer-work party (Fur: “tawisa”) organized in connection with house building. Note the circular stone base of the building and the wooden frame of the conical roof that will be covered by thatch.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Landsby, Tradisjonell byggeskikk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0012

Randi Haaland

Gidad village, Southern Darfur.

A Fur woman of the “mir” caste is smoothing with a cow’s rib the interior surface of the rim/mouth (Fur: “uto”) area of the pot she is making.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0383

Gunnar Haaland

Lower Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

Fur women are fetching water from a shallow pond by means of calabashes (Fur: “kere”) and pouring it into clay pots (Fur: “tawu”) that they carry on ...

Kvinne, Kvinner i arbeid, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Vann, Esel

Fotografi ubb-haa-0344

Randi Haaland

A hill site near Dor, Northern Darfur.

A Fur woman making stone grinders (Fur: “munang”- upper grinder, “dida” – lower grinder). A syndrome of activities associated with food preparations, like fetching water and firewood, ...

Kvinne, Kvinner i arbeid, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Kvern/mølle (bygdemølle), Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0349

Randi Haaland

Gidad village, Southern Darfur.

A “mir” (blacksmith/potter caste) woman is shaping the base (Fur: “kiri”) of the pot. Note the small clay pounder that she is using.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0372

Gunnar Haaland

Western foothills of Jebel Marra.

A big beer-work party (Fur: “Bambani”) arranged by a man to honour his mother in law (Fur: “iya mare”, Arabic: “naseeba”) by inviting a large group of people ...

Kvinne, Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0223

Gunnar Haaland

Near Nyertete in the western foothills of Jebel Marra, Western Darfur.

A Fulani nomad of the Weila tribe is demonstrating his skills as an archer. The typical Fulani weapons are the bow and arrow, in contrast to the lance (Arabic: “shalaqaiya”) that is the typical weapon ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Våpen, Pil og bue

Fotografi ubb-haa-0590

Gunnar Haaland

Southern Darfur.

A woman of the Woodabe Fulani is loading the family’s household equipment, preparing to move further north into the Fur area.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Okse

Fotografi ubb-haa-0059

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Lower Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

At the trunk of this Ficus spp. (Fur: “buro”. Arabic: “Gimmeiz”) tree the Fur of Amballa performed rain rituals during the cultivation season.

Religiøs virksomhet, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Trær, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0001

Randi Haaland

Sarar village, Southern Darfur.

A woman mixing clay (Fur: “daalu” ) with sorghum residue as temper for the pots (Fur: “tewe”) she is making.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0260

Gunnar Haaland

Village in Wadi Saleh area, Western Darfur

Drummers entertaining participants in a house-building party (Fur: “tawisa”). The festive character of communal works like house-building and agricultural tasks is further emphasized by lavish provision of beer (Fur: “kira”) and food. Provision of beer ...

Kvinne, Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Musikk (instrumental og vokal), Tromme, Trommeslager, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0333

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Western Darfur.

A local court (Arabic and Fur: “Makkama”) where the omda (Arabic for chief in the governmental system of administration) is hearing a case. Such courts were mainly deciding according to customary law.

Lover, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Rettssak, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0278

Gunnar Haaland

Tawila village between El Fashir and Kebkabiya, Northern Darfur.

A group of Kinin, a branch of the Tuaregs of the Sahel/sahara zone of North West Africa. They constitute a minority tribal group in Darfur, subsisting by both farming and herding. Like Tuaregs of ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0188

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Lower Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

Circumcision of boys is an important ceremony in Fur communities and lasts for several days. It involves consumption of local beer (Fur: “kira”) and prestigious food like ...

Kvinne, Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0327

Gunnar Haaland

Zalingi area, Western Darfur.

A group of Jumala Arab nomads from Northern Darfur migrating through the Fur area of Western Darfur, after the Fur have harvested their fields. In the 1960s and 1970s relations between the Fur and Arab ...

Kvinne, Barn, Feltarbeid, Kamel, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0393

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Marra, Western Darfur

Construction of houses is generally organized as communal work (Fur: “tawisa” , Arabic: “nafir”), where the host provides participants with local beer (Fur: “kira”, Arabic; “merissa”).

Kvinne, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Folkemengde, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Landsby, Øl

Fotografi ubb-haa-0171

Randi Haaland

Gidad village, Southern Darfur.

A woman is kneading clay for pottery making. Note on her right side the small clay ‘pounder’ used to mould the pot (Fur: “tewe”).

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0368

Randi Haaland

Toumra, Northern Darfur.

Men of the “mir” caste are making the clay tuyeres (Fur: “borongot”) required for blowing air into the furnace during smelting. The making of tuyeres can easily ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0110

Gunnar Haaland

Foothills of Jebel Marra, Western Darfur.

A woman of the Umm Jalul Arab camel nomads. The Umm Jalul leave their rainy season grazing areas in Northern Darfur and migrate to the area of the Fur in the dry season when water ...

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Kamel, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0020

Randi Haaland

Toumra, Northern Darfur.

Two men of the blacksmith/potter caste (Fur: “mir”) are preparing the furnace for the iron smelting process. Fur farmers generally use the same word “nonum” for furnace ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk, Ovn

Fotografi ubb-haa-0085

Gunnar Haaland

Wadi Saleh area, Western Darfur.

Beer-work party mobilized for thatching the roof of a new house.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Landsby, Tradisjonell byggeskikk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0018

Randi Haaland

Sarar village, Southern Darfur.

A woman of the “mir” caste” is covering the pots in the shallow pit with straw and pieces of firewood (Fur: “ar” ) before firing

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0238

Randi Haaland

Toumra village, Northern Darfur.

An elderly woman of the blacksmith/potter caste (Fur: “mir”) has prepared the body (Fur:” kiri”) of three pots in the foreground. She is now crushing fine-grained clay on a grindstone (Fur: “dida”) to be smeared ...

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0246

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Drumming, singing, and dancing are important events connected with circumcision (Fur: “dogola kandi”, Arabic: “tahura”). Note the man dressed as a woman to the left of the drummers. He is a male relative of a ...

Kvinne, Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Tromme, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0330

Randi Haaland

Toumra village, Northern Darfur.

Men of the “mir” caste are filling up the furnace with sorghum stalks to be used for igniting firewood (Fur: “ar”) and charcoal (Fur: “minina”) that is filled in later.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk, Ovn

Fotografi ubb-haa-0086

Gunnar Haaland

Near the town of Zalingi, Western Darfur.

A Baggara group moving to a new dry season camp in the Fur area along Wadi Azum. Note the lance (Arabic: “shalaqaiya”) carried by the man. This is a typical weapon used by the Baggara.

Hund, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Våpen, Kveg, Okse

Fotografi ubb-haa-0546

Randi Haaland

Village near Kutum in Northern Darfur

A Fur woman with her child in a transhumant settlement.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Kvinner og barn, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0167

Gunnar Haaland

Umu village, Jebel Marra

A Fur woman is drumming next to the underground nests of flying ants (Fur: “simoa”). The sound produced by drumming is apparently a signal similar to rain-drops and entices the ants to come out of ...

Kvinne, Sanking, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Tromme, Trommeslager, Maur

Fotografi ubb-haa-0170

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

A beer-work party is organized in connection with house building. The workers are constructing the wooden frame of the conical roof that will be covered by thatch. What is emphasized in the beer-work party is ...

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Tradisjonell byggeskikk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0015

Randi Haaland

Gidad village, Southern Darfur.

A Fur woman of the “mir” (blacksmith/potter) caste is decorating the body (Fur: “kiri”) of the pot by pressing a shell against the wet clay

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Industri og Håndverk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0385

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area.

Women clearing a hill slope for sowing millet (Fur: “sona”). Men and women have separate fields that they cultivate individually and store the yields in their separately ...

Kvinne, Landbruk, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0585

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

A variety of cultural elements (associated with males as well as females) are improvised in the festive activities taking place at circumcision. On this photo a decorated camel (Fur: “kamal”) on which the boy to ...

Feltarbeid, Kamel, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Gutt, Sosialantropologi, Hjelm, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0025

Randi Haaland

Toumra, Northern Darfur.

Men of the “mir” caste are inserting tuyeres (Fur: “borongot”) at the base of an iron furnace. Note the painted decoration on the body of the furnace.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe, Industri og Håndverk, Ovn

Fotografi ubb-haa-0115

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si, Northern Darfur.

Two Fur women are carrying water in ceramic pots (Fur: “tawu”) back to their village.

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Trær, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Krukke

Fotografi ubb-haa-0168

Gunnar Haaland

Kornei village near Nyertete, Western Darfur.

Fur villages in the western foothills of Jebel Marra are frequently enclosed by fences made of wooden logs.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Landsby

Fotografi ubb-haa-0174

Gunnar Haaland

Western foothills of Jebel Marra.

A woman doing the third and last weeding before the harvest. The fertile valleys between the hills are easier to cultivate than the stony slopes, but still ...

Landskap, Kvinne, Landbruk, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0513

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

House-building party. Note the clay container for storage of grain (Fur: “nonum”) inside the stonewalls of the house. Ample provision of beer (Fur: “kira”) is a dominant feature of such mutual help undertakings.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Øl, Tradisjonell byggeskikk

Fotografi ubb-haa-0583

Gunnar Haaland

Amballa, Lower Wadi Azum.

A Baggara Arab man and child riding an ox on their migration from the dry season grazing area in western Darfur to their own rainy season “dar” (homeland in Arabic) in Id el Ghannam, southern ...

Barn, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Våpen, Okse

Fotografi ubb-haa-0033

Randi Haaland

Sarar village, Southern Darfur

A Fur woman grinding sorghum (Fur: “marga”, Arabic: “durra”) on a well-used grinder (Fur: “dida”- lower grinder, “manang” – upper grinder). Millet products are of special symbolic importance in Fur society. Millet flour mixed with ...

Kvinne, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Kornvarer, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0122

Gunnar Haaland

Umu village, Jebel Marra, Western Darfur

Men are gathered on the slope of a cultivation terrace for their Friday prayer. Fur people practice rituals associated with Islam as well as with non-Islamic religious traditions.

Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Bønn, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Gruppe

Fotografi ubb-haa-0538

Gunnar Haaland

Western foothills of Jebel Marra.

Men drinking beer (Fur: “kira”) during a break in a beer-work party. The beer-work party is just as much a “party” occasion as it is a “work” ...

Landbruk, Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Fargefotografi, Jordbruk, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Øl

Fotografi ubb-haa-0218

Gunnar Haaland

Jebel Si area, Northern Darfur.

Slaughtering an ox (Fur: “nong”) for provision of meat (Fur: “nino”) to entertain guests coming to a circumcision ritual.

Mann, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Sosialantropologi, Forskning, Okse, Slakting

Fotografi ubb-haa-0050

Gunnar Haaland

Northern Darfur.

Fur boys who do not go to government schools will for periods of 4 to 6 years attend Koran schools (Fur: “som”) where they are instructed by local faqihs (Arabic for “holy men”) teaching them ...

Barn, Skolebygning, Feltarbeid, Arkeologi, Religion, Fargefotografi, Gutt, Sosialantropologi, Forskning

Fotografi ubb-haa-0272